Ostro, B.D., R Broadwin, and M.J. Lipsett. (2000). Coarse and fine particles and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: a follow-up study. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. Retrieved from

  •  This study intends to repeat an earlier investigation done by Ostro, Hurley, and Lipsett, published in 1999. The previous study looked at the link between mortality in the Coachella Valley and PM10, while this study looks at the fraction of coarse mode particles (between 2.5 and 10µm in diameter).
  • Data was gathered from site in Palm Springs and Indio for 2.5 years.
  • The study concludes that there is no strong evidence of a correlation between high wind events, when coarse particulate matter is most concentrated, and daily mortality.
  • The study asserts finding a consistent association between PM 10 and the coarse fractions and daily cardiovascular mortality.


Ostro, B.D., S. Hurley, and M.J. Lipsett. (1999). Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: A Study of PM10 Dominated by Coarse Particles. Environmental Research. Retrieved from

  • This study gathered pollutant concentration information from a Palm Springs data site and an Indio site, while mortality information was gathered from the California Department of Health Services, Health Data and Statistics Branch.
  • The time period of study was from August 1, 1989, through October 31, 1992, a total of 1188 days.
  •  This study finds evidence for a mortality effect of PM10 in an area where the particulate mass is dominated by coarse particles.


Hard to Count Census Tracts- Families Below Poverty Level: Riverside County Supervisorial District 4 [Topological map]. (2009). Retrieved from The California Endowment.

  • The map illustrates census tracts with families below poverty level in the county and also provides four detail maps of denser populated areas, like Indio and Mecca.


Sign Up for our E-newsletter