California Rural Legal Assistance, Inc. (2010). Safe and Affordable Water for All. Annual Report, 2010, p. 12-23. Retrieved from

  • CRLA Annual Report includes profiles of key cases. Pages 12-13 discuss arsenic-contaminated water in Coachella and how property managers in the area overcharge residents for unused and unsafe water.
  • Briefly touches on how the community worked together to protest the situation. Includes quotes from Assembly Member Manuel Perez who authored legislation AB 2515 that would require the installation of certified filtration systems.

Coachella Valley Regional Water Management Group. (n.d.) Integrated Regional Water Management Planning. Retrieved from

  • IRWM Planning is a process by which multiple agencies within a region work collaboratively to better the region’s water quality and supply in an inclusive way. 
  • The management group includes the valley’s five water purveyors, who have come together to improve water resource planning and management for the entire region. Possible projects include: increasing water supply and improving water quality.
  • The website includes several service area maps on the communities served.

Grosjean D. and E.L. Williams II. (1992). Photochemical Pollution at Two Southern California Smog Receptor Sites. Journal of the Air Waste Management Association. Retrieved from

  • The report details a one-year survey evaluating the transport of photochemical smog from the Los Angeles area, and assesses population exposure to toxic air pollutants in the Coachella Valley and eastern Riverside County. Two receptor sites were established for24-hour sample collection in Perris and Palm Springs.
  • Ambient concentrations of all chemicals searched for can be found on page 807 along with a summary of seasonal variance (Table I and Table II).
  • Table III compares concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and a concentration ratio of the two at selected locations; comparatively, concentrations of the two chemicals are highest in Palm Spring and Perris.

Honoré, M. (2012, March 25). Mecca’s Misery, Chapter 5: Neighbors feel trapped. The Desert Sun. Retrieved from

  • The Desert Sun compiled the total number of smell complaints received by the South Coast Air Quality Management District between December 2010 and June 2011. The final total is 228. A table of the complaints can be found at
  • Neighboring communities report feeling “trapped” by the odors, which at times prevent them from opening windows and going outside. Some have complained to WEI, but employees would blame nearby agricultural fields.
  • The other company residing on the same plot of tribal land, Colmac Energy, fears WEI’s work might hurt their business. Unlike WEI, Colmac signed an air quality monitoring and enforcement agreement with AQMD, the Cabazon tribe, Riverside County and the Coachella Valley Association of Governments prior to starting operations. Colmac brought concerns to the tribe, but nothing has been done.
Ostro, B.D., R Broadwin, and M.J. Lipsett. (2000). Coarse and fine particles and daily mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: a follow-up study. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology. Retrieved from
  • This study intends to repeat an earlier investigation done by Ostro, Hurley, and Lipsett, published in 1999. The previous study looked at the link between mortality in the Coachella Valley and PM10, while this study looks at the fraction of coarse mode particles (between 2.5 and 10µm in diameter).
  • Data was gathered from site in Palm Springs and Indio for 2.5 years
  • The study concludes that there is no strong evidence of a correlation between high wind events, when coarse particulate matter is most concentrated, and daily mortality.
  • The study asserts finding a consistent association between PM 10 and the coarse fractions and daily cardiovascular mortality.

Ostro, B.D., S. Hurley, and M.J. Lipsett. (1999). Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in the Coachella Valley, California: A Study of PM10 Dominated by Coarse Particles. Environmental Research. Retrieved from

  • This study gathered pollutant concentration information from a Palm Springs data site and an Indio site, while mortality information was gathered from the California Department of Health Services, Health Data and Statistics Branch.
  • The time period of study was from August 1, 1989, through October 31, 1992, a total of 1188 days.
  • This study finds evidence for a mortality effect of PM10 in an area where the particulate mass is dominated by coarse particles.

South Coast Air Quality Management District. (1997). Chapter 8: Future Air Quality –Desert Nonattainment Areas .  Final 1997 Air Quality Management Plan. Retrieved from

  • Coachella Valley exceeds the federal ozone standard and is classified as a “serious” nonattainment area; the District recommends a re-designation to “Severe-15.”
  • Air quality standards in the Coachella Valley are impacted by the South Coast Air Basin emissions; the District believes that aggressive control of the South Coast is an effective strategy to substantially improve air quality in the Coachella Valley.
  • Table 8-4A and 8-4B show a summary of further progress calculations for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx).
  • The attainment date for meeting ozone standards is set to 2019.
  • The District predicts that the Coachella Valley will see an increase in population, from 490,226 in 2010 to 619,900 in 2020.

Azevedo, K.J. (2000). Health Care Access Among California Farmworker Households in the Desert Southwest, Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Irvine, Prof. Arthur J. Rubel, Chair, ix + 227 pp.

  • Dr. Azevedo is a medical anthropologist whose dissertation research comprised lengthy residence and field research in the East Coachella Valley. Her thesis reports on risks to health status and access to care among full-time farmworker households in Mecca, California. Interviews were conducted among members of 130 households during the two-and-one-half year period from February 1997 through June 1999.

California Institute for Rural Studies. (2002). Pathways to Farmworker Health Care, Case Study No. 1: The East Coachella Valley. Retrieved from

  • This case study focuses on evaluating farmworker living and working conditions and examine the channels and barriers to service delivery that exist within and outside the sub-region.
  • The study provides a detailed description of health conditions in the Eastern Coachella Valley in areas such as general demographics, farmworker housing conditions, channels and barriers to health care, and community-based intervention options.

Du Bry, T. (2007). Immigrants, settlers, and laborers: The socioeconomic transformation of a farming community. New York: LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC.

  • Dr. Du Bry examines economic development in the East Coachella Valley through the family histories of Mexican immigrant farmworker families. His thesis reports findings based on several years of field research in Mecca, California.
  • From his work he draws conclusions about some of the occupations available to the farming community in Coachella.

Guevara, E. (2012, May 23). Community View: mecca deserves real answers and actions from western environmental. Coachella Unincorporated. Retrieved from

  • The author, Eduardo Guevara, asserts a general distrust of WEI’s activities.
  • His main criticism is the lack of transparency in WEI’s activities due to the fact that they operate on sovereign land. Guevara believes WEI has “taken advantage of loopholes in legislation.”

Social Compact. (2010). Coachella: Grocery Gap. Retrieved from

  • Describes the food availability for Coachella residents in terms of distance to grocery stores and stores’ capacity. The study concludes that 28% of the population in Coachella is considered underserved.

Yeung, B. (2011, December 22). Residents of Coachella Valley suffer high rates of sickness. California Watch. Retrieved from

  • This article summarizes some of the findings from a health report released by the Palm Desert-based Health Assessment Resource Center (HARC), which began gathering health and socioeconomic data for eastern Riverside County in 2007.

California Air Resources Board. ( 2007). The Health Impacts of Coarse Particulate Matter [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

  • Concerns the adverse consequences of coarse air pollution (e.i. PM 10) and heart rate variability. These consequences were stronger in desert regions, due to the deserts unique particle composition in desert regions.
  • Studies found increase in cardiovascular and total death related to coarse particles.
  • Presentation refers to Dr. Michael J. Lipsett’s study on Coachella Valley senior residents with heart disease; he found short-term exposure to coarse particles can be hazardous to public health.

The California Endowment. (2011). Eastern Coachella Valley: Health Profile [Fact sheet]. Building Healthy Communities. Retrieved from

  • The information on the fact sheet is derived from the California Health Interview Survey.
  • It describes the health of adults, teens, and children living in Eastern Coachella Valley, one of the 14 BHC sites. It provides a snapshot of key survey findings prior to implementing the BHC plan and can be used to mobilize friends and neighbors, advocate for community change, secure greater resources, and guide community planning.

Coachella Valley residents less healthy than California peers. (2011, December 20). The Public Record, pp. 10. Retrieved from

  • This article summarizes some of the findings from a health report released by the Palm Desert-based Health Assessment Resource Center (HARC). The report asserts that 17.4% of Coachella Valley residents consider themselves to have fair or poor health, double the state proportion of 8.1%.

Osborn, S.N. (2011). Eastern Riverside County Community Health Monitor Executive Summary for Children 0 to 5 and 6 to 17 for First 5 Riverside. Health Assessment Resource Center. Retrieved from

  • This summary looks at data from the 2012 Community Health Monitor report on children 0-5 and 6-17 for Riverside County; areas surveyed include Coachella, India, Mecca/North Shore, and Thermal, among others.
  • Topics covered include: health access, health optimization, oral health, mental health, asthma, nutrition, and physical activity.

Villarejo, D. & Schenker, M. (2006). Environmental Health Policy and California’s Farm Labor Housing. Retrieved from

  • The report looks at data from the California Agricultural Worker Health Survey (CAWHS), looking at the increase in migrant workers in several regions throughout California, including Mecca, a city in the Coachella Valley, and the housing conditions in each area. Conditions are assessed by the type of dwelling workers reside in, occupants per dwelling, median income, and rental rate.
  • The report calls for more uniform standards in addressing housing health in the state of California. At the end of the report 9 policy recommendations are given which highlight the need for research and government intervention.

ECV-IVAN. (2011). East Coachella Valley IVAN Reports. Retrieved from

  • The website has documented reports of the odor pestilence coming from WEI and cites the incidence as a verified report.
  • IVAN aims to protect the environment and well-being of ECV residents; it encourages community member to report environmental problems and environmental damage.
  • It is sponsored by Comite Civico Del Valle, Inc., Cal EPA State Water Resources Control Board, The California Endowment, and Z Data Solutions LLC.
  • Mapping includes search function by date and category of environmental hazard (e.g. abandoned/ illegal dumping, etc.).

Healthy City. (2009). Coachella [Topographical map]. The California Endowment. Retrieved from

  • A map of the Coachella region that includes roads, streets, parks and the Salton Sea. It also outlines Thermal and Mecca on the map.

Honoré, M. (2011, November 29). Re: Health hazards similar in San Joaquin, Coachella valleys [article by Desert Sun reporter]. The Desert Sun. Retrieved from

  • Blog post in SJV Leap highlights the “Land of Risk/ Land of Opportunity” report on environmental and health risks in the San Joaquin Valley; states conditions are similar in the eastern Coachella Valley (e.g. polluted water, toxic air).
  • States no comparable report exists for the eastern Coachella Valley.
  • Academic involvement in region: Ryan Sinclair (Assistant Professor of Environmental Health, Loma Linda University) maps mobile home parks and “health threats from wastewater that isn’t properly disposed”; team of students is assisting him with project; intends to finish project when he receives more funding. His report can be found on the IVAN mapping website:

Saldivar, A. (2012, May 4). Children Lay Foundation for Community Garden at Mecca Trailer Park. Coachella Unincorporated. Retrieved from

  • Kounkuey Design Initiative and Pueblo Unido Community Development Corporation are collaborating on a community garden project in Mecca’s St. Anthony’s Trailer Park. KDI details the project on their website
  • KDI has partnered with the University of California, Davis extension program in Riverside County to provide Nutrition Education classes to residents.
  • The project aims to provide residents with a safe recreation area for adults and children, engage local youth as community leaders, and provide healthy good options through garden crops.

Saldivar, A. (2011, November 17). Private School = Public Transportation Headache for Thermal Student. Coachella Unincorporated. Retrieved from

  • This article presents the personal account of a young Thermal resident and her struggles with public transportation to and from her private school in Palm Desert.
  • The author asserts that there are too few transit stops in the East Valley, and that she would require private means of transportation to and from the nearest bus stop; the nearest bus stop from her home was an hour away on foot.

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